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The VM executes bytecode, instead of traversing an AST. Instead of executing a bytecode file for every module, all modules are compiled into a single bytecode file, known as a "bytecode image".

The format in which bytecode is serialised is a custom binary format. A bytecode image is broken up into two sections: a header, and a list of modules that make up the program to run. Each module in turn consists out of one or more compiled code objects.

A compiled code object is a collection of instructions and meta data describing a single Inko block, such as a method. These objects include the name, the path of the source file, the instructions to run, debugging information, and more. Each compiled code object can contain 0 or more other compiled code objects that may need to be run.

At various points in this guide will we reference certain types such as u8 or i64. These types are defined as follows:

Type Meaning
u8 An 8 bits unsigned integer.
u16 A 16 bits unsigned integer, serialised in big-endian order.
u64 A 64 bits unsigned integer, serialised in big-endian order.
i64 A 64 bits signed integer, serialised in big-endian order.
[X; Y] A fixed size array, containing Y values of type X, such as [u8; 4].
boolean A single u8 that can only be 0 or 1.

In certain places we also use examples such as [1, 2, 3]. This means we are referring to an array containing the values 1, 2, 3 in the given order.

Every bytecode image must start with a header. The header consists out of three parts:

  1. A signature
  2. The version of the bytecode format
  3. The module entry point

The signature is a [u8; 4] containing the following u8 values:

[105, 110, 107, 111]

When converted to a string, this will read "inko".

The version is used by the VM to determine if it will be able to parse the bytecode file. The version is a single u8, and is only incremented when backwards incompatible bytecode changes are made. The version byte comes directly after the signature.

If the signature or version is not recognised, the VM will exit with an error.

The entry point is a string that specifies what module acts as the entry point (= the first module to run) for the program. It's an error to not specify an entry point.


After the header comes the list of modules. First there is a u64 that contains the number of modules included in the image. Each module consists of two sections:

  1. A list of all literals used by the module.
  2. The compiled code object for the module's body.

The list of literals starts with a u64 containing the total number of literals. The maximum number of literals is (1 << 32) - 1. This u64 is then followed by the literals.


Literals are values such as string, integer and float literals. These literals are stored at the module-level. Thus, if the same literal is referred to 100 times, it's only stored once; reducing the size of both the bytecode image and the memory used. When referring to these literals, the bytecode uses an index to the module-level literals table containing that literals.

The following types of literals are stored in the literals table:

  • Integers
  • Byte arrays
  • Big integers
  • Floats
  • Strings

Each literal starts with a u8 that specifies the type of literal. This byte is then followed by one or more bytes that make up the literal.


Integers are serialised as a u8 of value 0, followed by a [u8; 8] containing the bytes that make up the integer. For example, the integer 42 is serialised as:

[0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 42]

The maximum value that can be serialised as an integer is 9 223 372 036 854 775 807.

The values are ordered in big-endian order.

Big integers

Big integers start with a u8 of value 3, followed by a hexadecimal string literal. For example, the number 18 446 744 073 709 551 614 is serialised as follows:

    3,                                      # The type marker of a big integer
    16, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0,                # The number of bytes in the string
    102, 102, 102, 102, 102, 102, 102, 102,
    102, 102, 102, 102, 102, 102, 102, 101

Serialising a big integer is done as follows:

  1. Take the integer value
  2. Convert it to a hexadecimal string
  3. Serialize this as a bytecode string literal
  4. Prefix it with the byte value 3


Floats start with a u8 of value 1, followed by a [u8; 8]. For example, the float 15.2 is serialised as follows:

  1,                                    # The type marker of a float
  64, 46, 102, 102, 102, 102, 102, 102  # The bytes that make up the float

The virtual machine parses this into a float by reading the bytes, then uses these directly as the bits layout for the float. In Rust this is done using std::f64::from_bits().

The bytes of a float are ordered in big-endian order.


Strings start with a u8 of value 2, followed by a u64 indicating the number of bytes in the string, followed by a sequence of u8 values that make up the string.

The string "inko" is serialised as follows:

  2,                      # The type indicator for a string
  0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 4, # The number of bytes
  105, 110, 107, 111      # The bytes in the string

Compiled code

Compiled code objects are a bit complex to parse as they contain quite a bit of data. Each compiled code object has the following fields (all are required), parsed in this order:

  1. The name of the object, as a string.
  2. The path of the source file, as a string.
  3. The line number the code object originates from, as a u16.
  4. The names of the arguments as an array of strings, empty if no arguments are defined.
  5. A u8 indicating the number of required arguments.
  6. The number of local variables used by the compiled code object, as a u16.
  7. The number of registers used by the compiled code object, as a u16.
  8. A boolean indicating if the compiled code object captures any outer local variables.
  9. An array of 0 or more instructions.
  10. An array of compiled code objects defined inside this compiled code object.
  11. An array containing 0 or more catch entries.


Each VM instruction consists out of the following fields, in this order:

  1. A u8 indicating the instruction to execute.
  2. A u16 specifying the line the instruction originates from.
  3. A [u16; 6] containing the instruction arguments. If an argument is unset, its value is 0.

Each instruction has a size of 16 bytes.

Available instructions

The following instruction types and their u8 values are available:

Instruction Byte
Allocate 0
AllocatePermanent 1
ArrayAllocate 2
ArrayAt 3
ArrayLength 4
ArrayRemove 5
ArraySet 6
AttributeExists 7
BlockGetReceiver 8
ByteArrayAt 9
ByteArrayEquals 10
ByteArrayFromArray 11
ByteArrayLength 12
ByteArrayRemove 13
ByteArraySet 14
Close 15
CopyBlocks 16
CopyRegister 17
Exit 18
ExternalFunctionCall 19
ExternalFunctionLoad 20
FloatAdd 21
FloatDiv 22
FloatEquals 23
FloatGreater 24
FloatGreaterOrEqual 25
FloatMod 26
FloatMul 27
FloatSmaller 28
FloatSmallerOrEqual 29
FloatSub 30
GeneratorAllocate 31
GeneratorResume 32
GeneratorValue 33
GeneratorYield 34
GetAttribute 35
GetAttributeInSelf 36
GetBuiltinPrototype 37
GetFalse 38
GetGlobal 39
GetLocal 40
GetNil 41
GetParentLocal 42
GetPrototype 43
GetTrue 44
Goto 45
GotoIfFalse 46
GotoIfTrue 47
IntegerAdd 48
IntegerBitwiseAnd 49
IntegerBitwiseOr 50
IntegerBitwiseXor 51
IntegerDiv 52
IntegerEquals 53
IntegerGreater 54
IntegerGreaterOrEqual 55
IntegerMod 56
IntegerMul 57
IntegerShiftLeft 58
IntegerShiftRight 59
IntegerSmaller 60
IntegerSmallerOrEqual 61
IntegerSub 62
LocalExists 63
ModuleGet 64
ModuleLoad 65
MoveResult 66
ObjectEquals 67
Panic 68
ProcessAddDeferToCaller 69
ProcessCurrent 70
ProcessIdentifier 71
ProcessReceiveMessage 72
ProcessSendMessage 73
ProcessSetBlocking 74
ProcessSetPinned 75
ProcessSpawn 76
ProcessSuspendCurrent 77
ProcessTerminateCurrent 78
Return 79
RunBlock 80
RunBlockWithReceiver 81
SetAttribute 82
SetBlock 83
SetGlobal 84
SetLiteral 85
SetLiteralWide 86
SetLocal 87
SetParentLocal 88
StringByte 89
StringConcat 90
StringEquals 91
StringLength 92
StringSize 93
TailCall 94
Throw 95

Variable-length arguments

Since instructions have a fixed size, they can only support a fixed number of arguments (six to be exact). Some instructions need to operate on more than six values, such as the SetArray instruction. Such instructions do this as follows:

  1. One argument specifies the register containing the first value.
  2. One argument is used to specify the number of values.
  3. All other values follow the first one.

As an example, consider the following Inko array:'a', 'b', 'c', 'd', 'e', 'f', 'g', 'h', 'i', 'j')

This array has 10 values, which don't fit in a single instruction. The resulting ArrayAllocate bytecode would look something like this:

%a = 'a'
%b = 'b'
%c = 'c'
%d = 'd'
%e = 'e'
%f = 'f'
%g = 'g'
%h = 'h'
%i = 'i'
%j = 'j'
%result = ArrayAllocate(%a, 10)

Here %result is the register to store the resulting array in. %a is the first register, followed by the registers containing the other values.

Catch entries

A catch entry specifies a sequence of instructions that may throw an error, and what instruction to jump to when this happens. Each entry consists out of the following fields:

  1. A u16 containing the start position of the instruction range.
  2. A u16 containing the end position of the instruction range.
  3. A u16 containing the instruction position to jump to.
  4. A u16 containing the register to store the error value in.

Instructions are zero-indexed, meaning the first instruction starts at index 0.