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Syntax

Inko uses a familiar syntax using curly braces, and is easy to understand by both humans and computers.

If you're new to Inko you don't have to read this entire guide right away, instead we recommend using it more as a reference as you make your way through the rest of the documentation.

Modules

Each Inko source file is a module and may contain the following:

  • Imports
  • Constants
  • Classes
  • Methods
  • Trait implementations
  • Classes that are reopened
  • Comments

Unlike languages such as Ruby and Python, it's not valid to include expressions directly in a module.

Comments

Comments start with a # and continue until the end of the line:

# This is a comment that spans a single line

Multiple uninterrupted comment lines are treated as a single comment:

# This is
# a single
# comment.

# But this is a separate comment due to the empty line above.

Imports

The import statement is used to import a module or symbols from a module. The syntax is as follows:

import mod1::mod2         # This imports `mod1::mod2` and exposes it as `mod2`
import mod1::mod2::A      # This imports the symbol `A`
import mod1::mod2::(A, B) # This imports the symbol `A` and `B`
import mod1::mod2::(self) # This imports `mod2` from module `mod1`

You can also alias symbols when importing them:

import mod1::mod2::(A as B) # `A` is now exposed as `B`

You can also import module methods:

import std::process::(sleep)

This always requires the use of parentheses in the symbol list, otherwise the compiler would think you're trying to import the module std::process::sleep.

Constants

Constants are defined using let at the module top-level:

let A = 10
let B = 10.5
let C = 'foo'
let D = A + 5

Constants are limited to integers, floats, and strings. Their values are limited to literals and binary expressions.

Classes

Classes are defined using the class keyword:

class Person {}

A class can define one or more fields using let:

class Person {
  let @name: String # `@name` is the field name, and `String` its type
  let @age: Int
}

Classes default to being private to the module they are defined in. To make a class public, use class pub like so:

class pub Person {
  let @name: String # `@name` is the field name, and `String` its type
  let @age: Int
}

Inko also supports algebraic data types (also known as enums), which are defined like so:

class enum Result {}

class pub enum Result {}

Enum classes allow defining of variants using the case keyword:

class enum Result {
  case Ok
  case Error
}

Enum classes can't define regular fields.

Generic classes are defined like so:

class enum Result[T, E] {
  case Ok(T)
  case Error(E)
}

Here T and E are type parameters. Type parameters can also list one or more traits that must be implemented before a type can be assigned to the parameter:

class enum Result[T, E: ToString + ToFoo + ToBar] {
  case Ok(T)
  case Error(E)
}

Processes are defined as async classes like so:

class async Counter {

}

class pub async Counter {

}

Classes can define static methods, instance methods, and async methods (in case the class is an async class):

class Person {
  let @name: String

  # This is a static method, available as `Person.new`.
  fn static new(name: String) -> Person {
    # ...
  }

  # This is an instance method, which is only available to instances of
  # `Person`.
  fn name -> String {
    # ...
  }
}

class async Counter {
  # An async instance method (more on this in a separate chapter).
  fn async increment {
    # ...
  }
}

Methods

Methods are defined using the fn keyword. At the top-level of a module only instance methods can be defined (i.e. static methods aren't valid directly in a module). Methods are private to their modules by default.

Methods use the following syntax:

# A private immutable instance method:
fn method_name {}

# A public immutable instance method:
fn pub method_name {}

# A private mutable instance method:
fn mut method_name {}

# A private moving method:
fn move method_name {}

# A public mutable instance method:
fn pub mut method_name {}

# A public mutable async instance method (only available in async classes):
fn pub async mut method_name {}

# Method names may end with a ?, this is used for predicate methods:
fn valid? {}

# Method names may also end with a =, this is used for setters:
fn value= {}

Methods with arguments are defined like so, optional arguments aren't supported:

fn method_name(arg1: ArgType, arg2: ArgType) {}

A throw type is specified using !!:

fn method_name !! ThrowType {}

A return type is specified using ->:

fn method_name -> ReturnType {}

If you need both, the throw type must come first:

fn method_name !! ThrowType -> ReturnType {}

Type parameters are specified before regular arguments:

fn method_name[A, B](arg1, A, arg2: B) {}

Like classes, you can specify a list of required traits:

fn method_name[A: ToFoo + ToBar, B](arg1, A, arg2: B) {}

The method's body is contained in the curly braces:

fn method_name {
  [10, 20]
}

Taits

Traits are defined using the trait keyword, and like classes default to being private to their modules.

Traits are defined like so:

trait ToString {}

trait pub ToString {}

Traits can specify a list of other traits that must be implemented before the trait itself can be implemented:

trait Debug: ToString + ToFoo {}

Traits can define both default and required methods:

trait ToString {
  # A required instance method:
  fn to_string -> String

  # A default instance method:
  fn to_foo -> String {
    'test'
  }
}

Traits aren't allowed to define static methods.

Traits can also define type parameters:

trait ToArray[T] {}

And like classes and methods, these can define required traits:

trait ToArray[T: ToFoo + ToBar] {}

Implementing traits

Traits are implemented using the impl keyword:

impl ToString for String {}

The syntax is impl TraitName for ClassName { body }. Within the body only instance methods are allowed.

Reopening classes

A class can be reopened using the impl keyword like so:

impl String {}

Within the body, only methods are allowed; fields can only be defined when the class is defined for the first time.

Expressions

Each method's body can contain zero or more expressions.

Identifiers

Identifiers are referred to by just using their name:

this_is_an_identifier

Identifiers are limited to ASCII, though they may end in a ? (used for predicate methods):

The self keyword is used to refer to the receiver of a method. This keyword is available in all methods, including module and static methods.

Field references

Fields are referred to using @NAME where NAME is the name of the field:

@address

Constant references

Constants can be referred to by just using their name:

let NUMBER = 42

fn example {
  NUMBER
}

Scopes

Scopes are created using curly braces:

'foo'

{       # <- This is the start of a new scope
  'bar'
}       # <- The scope ends here

Strings

Inko has two types of strings: single quoted strings and double quoted strings. Double quoted strings allow the use of escape sequences such as \n and support string interpolation:

'foo\nbar'       # => "foo\\nbar" (as in a literal \n, not a newline)
"foo\nbar"       # => "foo\nbar"
"foo{10 + 5}bar" # => "foo15bar"

Strings can span multiple lines:

"this string spans
multiple
lines"

If a string spans multiple lines and a line ends with a \, the newline and any whitespace that follows is ignored:

"foo \
bar \
baz" # => "foo bar baz"

Integers

The syntax for integers is as follows:

10
0x123

Underscores in integer literals are ignored, and are useful to make large numbers more readable:

123_456_789

Floats

Floats are created using the usual floating point syntax:

10.5
-10.5
10e+2
10E+2

Arrays

Arrays are created using flat brackets:

[]
[10]
[10, 20]

Booleans

Booleans are created using true and false.

Nil

The nil keyword is used to create an instance of Nil.

Class literals

Class literals start with the name of the class followed by curly braces. Within the curly braces, zero or more fields are assigned a value:

class Person {
  let @name: String
}

Person { @name = 'Alice' }

Conditionals

if expressions use the if keyword:

if foo {
  one
} else if bar {
  two
} else {
  three
}

Loops

Infinite loops are created using the loop keyword:

loop {
  # ...
}

Conditional loops are created using the while keyword:

while condition {
  # ...
}

break and next can be used to break out of a loop or jump to the next iteration respectively. Breaking a loop with a value (e.g. break 42) isn't supported.

Pattern matching

Pattern matching is performed using the match keyword:

match value {
  case PAT -> BODY
}

Each case starts with the case keyword, specifies one or more patterns, an optional guard, and a body to run if the pattern matches.

The following patterns are supported:

  • Integer literals: case 10 -> BODY
  • Float literals: case 10.5 -> BODY
  • String literals: case 'foo' -> BODY
  • Constants: case FOO -> BODY
  • Bindings: case v -> BODY
  • Wildcards: case _ -> BODY
  • Variants: case Some(v) -> BODY
  • Class literals: case { @name = name } -> BODY
  • Tuples: case (a, b, c) -> BODY
  • OR patterns: case 10 or 20 -> BODY

Guards are also supported:

match foo {
  case Some(num) if num > 10 -> foo
  case _ -> bar
}

Closures

Closures are created using the fn keyword:

fn {}
fn (a, b) {}
fn (a: Int, b: Int) {}
fn (a, b) !! ErrorType -> ReturnType {}

Unlike methods, the argument types are optional.

Tuples and grouping

Expressions are grouped using parentheses:

(10 + 5) / 2 # => 7

Tuples are also created using parentheses, but must contain at least a single comma:

(10,)    # => Tuple1[Int]
(10, 20) # => Tuple2[Int, Int]

References

References are created using ref and mut:

ref foo
mut bar

Recover expressions

Recovering is done using the recover keyword:

recover foo
recover { foo }

Return and throw

The last value in a body is its return value. Explicitly returning values is done using return:

return 42

Throwing values is done using throw:

throw

Error handling

try and try! are used for error handling:

try foo
try foo else bar
try foo else (error) bar
try { foo } else bar
try { foo } else { bar }
try { foo } else (error) { bar }

try! foo
try! { foo }

Defining variables

Variables are defined using let:

let number = 42
let number: Int = 42
let _ = 42

By default a variable can't be assigned a new value. To allow this, use let mut:

let mut number = 42

number = 50

Pattern matching in a let isn't supported.

Assigning variables

Variables are assigned a new value using the syntax VAR = VAL. Inko also supports swapping of values using the syntax VAR := VAL.

Method calls

Methods without arguments can be called without parentheses. If arguments are defined, parentheses are required:

self.foo    # calls foo() on self
self.foo()  # Same thing
foo(10, 20)
self.foo(10, 20)

Named arguments are also supported:

foo(name: 10, bar: 20)

When using named arguments, they must come after positional arguments:

foo(10, bar: 20)

If the last argument is a closure, it can be specified after the parentheses:

foo(10) fn { bar } # Same as `foo(10, fn { bar })`

Binary expressions

Binary operator expressions use the following syntax:

left OP right

For example:

10 + 5

Operators are left-associative. This means 5 + 10 * 2 evaluates to 30, not 25. The following binary operators are supported:

+ , - , / , * , ** , % , < , > , <= , >= , << , >> , | , & , ^ , == , !=

Inko also supports two logical operators: and and or. These operators have a higher precedence than the regular binary operators. This means 1 + 2 and 3 + 4 is parsed as (1 + 2) and (3 + 4). and and or have the same precedence as each other.

Async method calls

Async calls start with the async keyword, and only support method calls with an explicit receiver:

async foo.bar
async { foo.bar }

Indexing

Indexing is done using [] and []= like so:

numbers[0]
numbers[0] = 42

Type casts

Type casting is done using as like so:

expression as TypeName

The as keyword has a higher precedence than the binary and logical operators, meaning that this:

10 + 5 as ToString

Is parsed as this:

(10 + 5) as ToString